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Clin Shoulder Elbow > Volume 18(3); 2015 > Article
Clinics in Shoulder and Elbow 2015;18(3):172-193.
DOI:    Published online September 30, 2015.
Ultrasonography and Ultrasound-guided Interventions of the Shoulder
Sang Ho Moon, Kwang Pyo Ko, Seung Il Baek, Song Lee
1Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Seoul Sacred Heart General Hospital, Seoul, Korea.
2Hanmaeum Orthopaedic Clinic, Daejeon, Korea.
3Cham Orthopaedic Clinic, Cheongju, Korea.
Received: 8 March 2015   • Revised: 12 May 2015   • Accepted: 12 May 2015
Nowadays shoulder ultrasound is commonly used in the assessment of shoulder diseases and is as accurate as magnetic resonance imaging in the detection of several pathologies. Operator dependence is the main disadvantage of shoulder ultrasound. After adhering to a strict examination protocol, good knowledge of normal anatomy and pathologic processes and an awareness of common pitfalls, it can be used as a focused examination providing rapid, real-time diagnosis, and treatment by ultrasound-guided interventions in desired clinical situations. Also shoulder ultrasound can help the surgeon decide whether treatment will be surgical or nonsurgical. If arthroscopy is planned, sonographic findings help to counsel patients regarding surgical and functional outcomes. If a nonsurgical approach is indicated, ultrasound can be used to follow patients. This review article presents the examination techniques, the normal sonographic appearances and the main pathologic conditions found in shoulder ultrasound. And also addresses a simplified approach to scanning and ultrasound-guided intervention. Knowledge of optimal techniques, normal anatomy, dynamic maneuvers, and pathologic conditions is essential for optimal performance and interpretation of images.
Key Words: Shoulder; Ultrasound; Examination; Intervention


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