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J Sym & San Therapy > Volume 14(1); 2023 > Article
Journal of Symbols & Sandplay Therapy 2023;14(1): 17-72.
doi: https://doi.org/10.12964/jsst.23002
fNIRS Hyperscanning of Right-brain Synchronization between Therapist-client in Sandplay Therapy
Mikyung Jang1, Allan N. Schore2, Sehwa Lee3, Yeoreum Lee4, So-myung Kim5, Meera Kowen6
1Lead author, Professor, Department of Child Welfare, Namseoul University
2Co-author, Department of Psychiatry and Biobehavioral Sciences, University of California at Los Angeles, David Geffen School of Medicine
3Co-author, Instructor, Department of Social Welfare Counseling, Jeonju Kijeon College
4Corresponding author, Instructor, Department of Child Welfare, Namseoul University
5Co-author, Adjunct Professor, Department of Counseling & Coaching, Dongguk University Graduate School
6Co-author, Director, Reborn Psychological Counseling Center
모래놀이치료에서 치료자-내담자 우뇌 간(inter-brains) 동시화(synchronization)현상에 관한 fNIRS 하이퍼스캐닝 연구
장미경1, 앨런 쇼어2, 이세화3, 이여름4, 김소명5, 권미라6
1주저자, 남서울대학교 아동복지학과 교수
2공동저자, Department of Psychiatry and Biobehavioral Sciences, University of California at Los Angeles, David Geffen School of Medicine
3공동저자, 전주기전대 사회복지상담과 강사
4교신저자, 남서울대학교 아동복지학과 강사
5공동저자, 동국대학교 대학원 상담코칭학과 겸임교수
6공동저자, 리본심리상담센터 소장
Correspondence :  Yeoreum Lee ,Email: leesummer723@daum.net
Received: January 31, 2023  Revised: April 25, 2023   Accepted: April 26, 2023
This study investigated inter-right brain synchrony between therapist and client in Sandplay therapy, using hyperscanning technique based on functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS). fNIRS is a non-intrusive method that measures changes in oxyhemoglobin the cerebral blood. A total of seven therapist-client pairs-i.e., 14 participants-wore fNIRS devices on their heads and engaged in two sessions of Sandplay therapy, with each session lasting for 30 minutes. The study observed synchronization in the right and left prefrontal cortices of both therapists and clients in all seven pairs, during every session. Interestingly enough, synchronization occurred not only while the pairs engaged in verbal communication about the completed sandpicture but also during the non-verbal process of clients' creating sandpictures. The outcome of the study hence suggests neurobiological fundamentals for the therapeutic relationship between therapist and client, which is also called the therapeutic resonance, relational mutual regression, therapeutic alliance, and mother-child unity.
KeyWords: synchrony, inter-right brains, fNIRS, Sandplay therapy, therapist-client relationship
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